The World Health Organization estimated that globally, 25% of adults aged over 65 years suffer from pain and disability associated with arthritis (or osteoarthritis, OA).
OA is a degenerative debilitating condition characterized by pain, joint inﬂammation and joint stiffness, and results in a substantial degree of physical disability, poor quality of life, negative impact on personal relationships, and increase of economic burden on individuals, as well as on health and social care systems.
Anatomy alterations have been reported in OA patients. Osteoarthritis predominantly affects the weightbearing joints (such as the hip and knee), the spine (vertebral notches), and the hand’s joints.
It is characterized by gradual loss of articular cartilage; typical symptoms include pain in and around the joint and decreased movement. In women, OA is often associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration.
Some risk factors may also influence the appearance and progression of this disease.